• Fodder availability and cultivation is limited and mainly agriculture crop residues, wild tree and weed species provide fodder.
• In this scenario popularization of improved fodder practices and new technology suitable to mountain
Improved fodder grasses on bunds
Harvesting of Improved Fodder
Maze Chopping for Silage
Sprinkling of Silage Preservative
areas were prioritized.
• Different initiatives were taken to overcome the acute scarcity of fodder during lean period during winter (November – February) and summer (May-June) months which leads to poor cattle health and consequent low yield of milk production. The selection of quality fodder crops and grasses for silage making, simplification of silage technique and training on silage preparation and feeding were popularized among the small and marginal farmers in the hill terrains.
Innovation & Novelty:
• Improved fodder grasses (e.g Orchard grass, Tall Festuca) were introduced on bunds to provide regular supply of green fodder.
• Maze based cattle feed preparation with standardized maize silage base with addition of maize grain, oil cake, wheat bran and minerals by the local women groups as per their need was made.
• Dried feed pallets/bricks soaked in lukewarm water for 20-30 min before feeding. This formulation will be further taken up by the organized women producer group for preparation in commercial scale.
Impact Outreach and Adoption
Maize silage preparation
• >1000 households practicing improved fodder grass cultivation in and silage making Kullu, Mandi and Shimla districts.
• Reduced fodder wastage 40-70% through fodder cutters and improved stall feeding.
• Enhanced fodder nutrition (protein 8.46% to 20.46%) through silage.
• Increase and sustain milk quantity and milk fat contents 0.5-1.0% to get better milk price.
• Improved varieties of grasses and silage helped in improving cattle nutrition and fertility status.
• Women empowerment and drudgery reduction.
• Reduced fire hazard due to storage of dry fodder in mountain households.
Nutritional Analysis of Silage Base Feed
S.No. Characteristic Standard
Requirement Analysis of Silage
1. Moisture, percent by mass, Max. 12 15.20
2. Crude protein (N x 6.25), percent by mass, Min. 10 11.87
3. Crude fibre, percent by mass, Max. 28 24.00
4. Acid insoluble ash, percent by mass, Max. 9 8.61
5. Salt (as NaCl), per cent by mass, Max. 0.5 0.2
6. Urea, per cent by mass, Max. 1.0 0.7
7. Calcite powder, per cent by mass, Max. 0.5 ---
8. Vitamin A, I.U./kg, Min. 2,000 ---
Plantation of Fodder Tree Species
• Mountain species of Fodder Tree e.g. Quercus, Celtis, Robinia produced regularly in nursery for creating fodder plantation to sustain livestock.
• Plantation of fodder trees in mountains also provide fuel wood to further address women drudgery and fix atmospheric carbon.